-ed2 Also -t.
Forming the past tense and past participles of regular (weak) verbs.
[Old English -ed, -ad, -od.]
Examples from a large group include addressed, behaved, cheated, defeated, ironed, judged, lived, sorted, and toasted. Some verbs instead use -t, either after certain consonants (crept, sent) or when there is an internal change of vowel (felt, slept).
Many past participles in -ed can also be used as adjectives: excited, certified, collapsed, devoted, measured, moisturized, organized, pierced, scrambled, soiled, typed, wounded. The sense is not always exactly that of the verb: accomplished, highly trained or skilled in a particular activity, comes from accomplish, to achieve or complete something successfully.
A number of verbs have forms in both -ed and -t (dwelled, dwelt; kneeled, knelt; leaped, leapt; spelled, spelt). As a broad rule, the -t forms are more common in British English and the -ed ones in American English, though the -ed forms are increasingly found also in British English. When the past participles are used as adjectives, the forms in -t are preferred (burnt toast, spilt milk, spoilt child).