Go to 'thermo-' entry Go to 'dino-' entry Go to 'chondro-' entry Go to 'aero-' entry Go to '-logy' entry Go to 'thaumato-' entry Go to 'nano-' entry Go to '-sophy' entry Go to 'bucco-' entry Go to '-ism' entry Go to '-lysis' entry Go to 'galacto-' entry Go to '-anthropy' entry Go to 'pneumo-' entry Go to '-ploitation' entry Go to '-lithic' entry Go to '-sepalous' entry Go to 'onco-' entry Go to '-parous' entry Go to 'dermato-' entry Go to 'multi-' entry Go to 'dodeca-' entry Go to '-zoon' entry Go to 'vermi-' entry Go to 'crystallo-' entry Go to 'biblio-' entry Go to 'eco-' entry Go to 'juxta-' entry Go to 'facio-' entry
Affixes: the building blocks of English
Affixes: the building blocks of English

-en3 Also -n.

Forming past participles of strong verbs.

[Old English, of Germanic origin.]

Strong verbs indicate their past tenses by a change of vowel within the stem (as sing has past tense sang and past participle sung). Some of them mark their past participles by adding -en. Examples include broken, chosen, frozen, spoken, stolen, sunken, taken, and woven. American English retains gotten as the past participle of get. A number have lost the e from the ending following a final r in the stem: born, shorn, sworn. These forms can be used as adjectives, as can some whose participial use is now rare or archaic, such as proven and drunken; however, the second of these has the restricted sense of having drunk too much alcohol.

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