Go to 'thermo-' entry Go to 'dino-' entry Go to 'chondro-' entry Go to 'aero-' entry Go to '-logy' entry Go to 'thaumato-' entry Go to 'nano-' entry Go to '-sophy' entry Go to 'bucco-' entry Go to '-ism' entry Go to '-lysis' entry Go to 'galacto-' entry Go to '-anthropy' entry Go to 'pneumo-' entry Go to '-ploitation' entry Go to '-lithic' entry Go to '-sepalous' entry Go to 'onco-' entry Go to '-parous' entry Go to 'dermato-' entry Go to 'multi-' entry Go to 'dodeca-' entry Go to '-zoon' entry Go to 'vermi-' entry Go to 'crystallo-' entry Go to 'biblio-' entry Go to 'eco-' entry Go to 'juxta-' entry Go to 'facio-' entry
Affixes: the building blocks of English
Affixes: the building blocks of English

-ion Also -cion, -sion, -tion, and -xion.

Forming nouns denoting verbal action.

[Via French from Latin -ion- or words in -io.]

Examples have been formed from Latin verbs, adjectives or past participles. The main sense is that of an action related to a verb, as communion is the action of communing; rebellion is similarly related to the verb to rebel, fusion to fuse, and infliction to inflict. Nouns can often refer as much to a condition resulting from an action as to the action itself, as pollution can be the action of polluting, or the presence of some harmful substance as a result of the action. In some cases, the noun refers more particularly to the result rather than the action, as in explosion.

Many examples are preceded by a letter derived from the stem of the Latin participle: mainly s (immersion, persuasion) or t (evolution, solution), less often by c (suspicion) or x (fluxion).

A small group derived from Latin nouns have variously been spelled either -xion or -ction. With a few, the first spelling is standard (complexion, transfixion). With others both forms exist (connection/connexion; inflection/inflexion); in these cases the spelling in -ction predominates, partly because of the way the associated verb is spelled (connect, inflect) but also because there are so many nouns in -tion that this spelling has influenced them.

None of these endings are active in the language; new examples are formed using -ation or -ition. See also -ize (for -isation and -ization). Compare -ment and -ness.

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