Go to 'thermo-' entry Go to 'dino-' entry Go to 'chondro-' entry Go to 'aero-' entry Go to '-logy' entry Go to 'thaumato-' entry Go to 'nano-' entry Go to '-sophy' entry Go to 'bucco-' entry Go to '-ism' entry Go to '-lysis' entry Go to 'galacto-' entry Go to '-anthropy' entry Go to 'pneumo-' entry Go to '-ploitation' entry Go to '-lithic' entry Go to '-sepalous' entry Go to 'onco-' entry Go to '-parous' entry Go to 'dermato-' entry Go to 'multi-' entry Go to 'dodeca-' entry Go to '-zoon' entry Go to 'vermi-' entry Go to 'crystallo-' entry Go to 'biblio-' entry Go to 'eco-' entry Go to 'juxta-' entry Go to 'facio-' entry
Affixes: the building blocks of English
Affixes: the building blocks of English

-ation

An action, or an instance of an action.

[French -ation or Latin -ation-. ]

The New Oxford Dictionary of English records more than 1,400 nouns that contain this suffix. Most are associated with verbs, commonly those in -ate (see -ate3): creation, deviation, moderation, navigation, perforation, pronunciation, resuscitation, suffocation, vibration. Others are associated with a variety of verbs, all ultimately from Latin: application with apply (Latin applicare); probation with probe (Latin probare, to test or prove); publication with publish (Latin publicare, make public).

Many other words in -ation appear to derive from English verbs: alteration, consultation, embarkation, formation, plantation, taxation, temptation, vexation, visitation. Though this is accidental, as the English verbs and nouns can all be traced back to Latin sources, this apparent connection was important in developing the idea of -ation as a true English suffix, so permitting nouns like flirtation to be based on English verbs. However, a number of nouns in this ending do not have an associated verb in English: duration, tribulation, ostentation, constellation.

See also -fication, -ion, -ition, -ize (for -ization and -isation), and -ution.

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